Full implementation of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) will remove many of the financial barriers women face to obtain effective methods of contraception. While making contraception affordable for every woman is a good first step toward improved prevention of unintended pregnancies, it remains the responsibility of health care providers to counsel women about all methods of contraception and help them find the one that may be the most effective.
The CHOICE project demonstrated that removing financial barriers related to the most effective methods of contraception decreases rates of unintended pregnancy and abortion. But the CHOICE project also did something many of us ob-gyns do not. Every reproductive-age woman eligible for the study was read a script about the effectiveness of long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARC), such as intrauterine devices (IUD) and hormonal implants.Instead of discussing LARC with their patients, many providers continue recommending less effective contraceptive methods based on misconceptions that adolescents, women who have never been pregnant, or women they estimate are at high risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are not good candidates for LARCs. However, according to ACOG, LARC is the most effective form of contraception available and safe for use in all of these groups.
Because LARCs don’t require ongoing effort by the user, continuation and correct usage rates are higher. This could significantly reduce unintended pregnancy among teens and women if widely adopted. Additionally, women at high risk of both STIs and unintended pregnancy can be screened, obtain a LARC method the same day, and receive treatment without removing the device. Women with medical conditions and physical and mental disabilities can also benefit from both the pregnancy prevention and the non-contraceptive benefits of LARC.
Other women may also benefit from a longer-acting option. Without strict breastfeeding, postpartum moms are at risk for ovulation and repeat pregnancies even earlier than six weeks after delivery. LARC methods can be inserted immediately following delivery or at four weeks postpartum. Despite slightly higher expulsion rates, the benefits of immediate postpartum insertion of LARC methods may outweigh risks for women who are unlikely to receive postpartum care.
Minimizing financial barriers will make contraceptive methods more accessible for women at risk of unintended pregnancies, but it is up to us, as their partners in prevention, to counsel them on the most effective methods, including LARCs, at every opportunity.
Frances Casey, MD, is a Family Planning Fellow at Washington Hospital Center in DC.
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